Analysis of the different types of stains, identification and treatment if necessary.
Vitiligo or vitiligo is an autoimmune skin disease, in which melanocytes (the cells responsible for skin pigmentation) are destroyed by the immune system, thus ceasing to produce melanin and, therefore, giving rise to to areas of the skin with loss of pigment.
The cause is not known, but it is known that white spots arise because the cells that give color to the skin (melanocytes) are destroyed.
It is an inappropriate inflammatory reaction of the body itself against its own cells: for this reason it is considered an autoimmune disease.
It can appear at any age and once diagnosed, associations with other autoimmune diseases must be ruled out (for example: hypo/hyper thyroidism).
There are different treatment options that must be evaluated individually for each patient.
They are benign epithelial proliferations (growths) that can appear on the skin and mucous membranes.
There are many types of warts. All skin lesions that are raised and that are not malignant are susceptible to being called warts. As an example we have seborrheic warts (see definition of seborrheic keratosis), skin tags or soft fibromas, etc.
Viral warts are a subgroup of contagious warts caused by the human papillomavirus.
These may appear more frequently on the hands and feet or on the genitals (in these cases they can be considered sexually transmitted).
Treatment is usually a combination of specific products and local cryotherapy (destruction of warts using cold).
Skin disease in which raised reddish, edematous welts appear: characteristically called hives.
These hives are itchy and usually disappear within a few hours, with others appearing in other locations.
The causes of hives are varied: allergic reactions to medications, foods and in many other cases it is not possible to determine what the causative agent is.
They are usually treated with antihistamines.
Skin disease in which patients who suffer from it experience facial flushing when faced with small stimuli (such as changes in temperature) and this redness progressively transforms into visible blood vessels (couperose), especially on the cheeks, forehead or nose.
In more evolved forms, small grains (inflammatory papules) may appear in the red areas.
Rosacea usually appears in middle age and occurs with outbreaks (self-limited but recurrent lesions) which is why it is considered a chronic facial dermatosis. It is usually diagnosed clinically and there are several topical treatments to slow its progression, improve redness outbreaks and treat inflammation if it appears.
Describes a large, red rash. It is usually associated with allergic reactions to medications or viruses (especially in children), but there are many other causes.
It is recommended, if a rash appears, to go to the dermatologist to study its origin and specific treatment.
Benign lesion in the form of a well-defined wart, waxy in appearance and rough to the touch. It can be skin-colored (pale yellow) or contain pigment (brown, even black) and be flat or raised.
The cause of its appearance is not known; there is a genetic predisposition in certain people. They are benign and not contagious but it is important to go to the dermatologist to diagnose them since they can have pigment and be confused with other skin lesions.
They can be removed if they cause discomfort because they become irritated, if they bleed because clothing rubs against them, or simply for aesthetic reasons. Removal is usually simple and there are several methods: freezing with liquid nitrogen (cryotherapy), curettage or curettage (with a special instrument), burning with electrical current (electrocauterization) or vaporizing the lesion with a laser (ablation).
They are injuries caused by chronic sun exposure (actinic = sun). As sun damage accumulates, a short period of sun exposure adds to the total amount of sun received. They appear in areas such as the facial region, arms and scalp.
They are considered the earliest form of skin cancer, they are called precancer because they can be the first step of squamous cell carcinoma, for this reason it is important to treat and eliminate them.
They appear as areas of rough touch. At first they are so small that they are usually recognized more by touch than by sight. The sensation is similar to running your finger through sandpaper (scratchy). Later they can grow and be seen as red lesions with scales.
They usually appear in middle-aged or older people depending on the amount of sun they have received and their skin type. There are many treatments and patients are followed to monitor the response to the treatments.
A burn is a loss of substance from the skin, it can be due to several causes: generally due to heat, but there are also cold (such as that which appears after a cryotherapy treatment), due to attacks on the skin: chemical products (for example, for example by bleach or other abrasives), by ultraviolet radiation (sunburn) or by very strong friction (friction burns).
Depending on the depth of the destruction, they can be classified as grade 1, 2, or 3 burns, with the treatment being different in each of them.
Hypertrophic (large) scar that extends beyond the original scar.
It is considered an averrant form of scarring, in which the skin, when healing from any wound, produces excess collagen (skin support fibers) exceeding the scar itself.
It is unknown exactly what causes the formation of hypertrophic and keloid scars.
There is no completely beneficial treatment but several options can be used such as patches, corticosteroids, infiltrations or cryotherapy.