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Skin diseases
(alphabetical order)


Inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicle that usually involves facial and/or central areas of the trunk. It is produced by a combination of bacterial, hormonal and inflammatory factors that compromise the sebaceous secretion and epidermal regeneration at the exit of the follicle (also known as "pores" of the skin).

Therefore, its expression can be very varied between open and closed comedones (the common black spots or skin-colored granites), pustules ("white grains"), or formation of very inflamed and painful cysts and lesions.

Your treatment will depend on all of these factors, which usually requires a combination of topical and often oral treatments. Appropriate and early treatment will prevent the formation of unsightly scars and which are the sequels of greater difficulty of resolution.

Allergy to the Sun

There are cases of exaggerated reaction of the immune system to sun exposure of the skin, itching, itching or even pain followed by wheals (similar to stings or hives) immediately after having exposed the skin to sunlight.

Given this suspicion, it is important to carry out a complete study to rule out other causes that may cause this sensation without actually being a solar allergy.

There are different treatments that improve and can solve this difficult situation.

Allergies in the skin

Generally any tumor or tissue is considered that without adequate treatment will tend to grow in an uncontrolled way in the skin and may invade nearby tissues. There are certain types of skin canes that if not treated properly can also acquire capacity. Of extending beyond the skin, as in the case of invasive melanoma.

Different families of skin cancer, the most frequent and least aggressive of which are carcinomas, melanomas are less frequent, however, they can appear in younger patients and have a higher risk if they are not detected early.

There are other types of skin cancer that are much more infrequent, such as lymphomas or skin sarcomas, cutaneous protection from sun exposure, as well as skin self-examination and especially the dermatological visits of early detection are essential tools for its prevention and adequate cure.


They are benign lesions of the skin formed by an accumulation of blood vessels, giving rise to red or violet spots, more or less extensive and flat or raised.

They do not usually involve any risk with the exception of some of congenital type in certain locations that the pediatric dermatologist already recognizes and advises the treatment if indicated.

Skin cancer

Generally any tumor or tissue is considered that without adequate treatment will tend to grow uncontrollably in the skin and may invade nearby tissues.

There are certain types of skin cancer that if left untreated they can also acquire ability to extend beyond the skin, as in the case of invasive melanoma, there are different families of skin cancer, the most frequent and least aggressive being carcinomas.

Melanomas are less frequent however, they can appear in younger patients and have a higher risk if they are not detected early.There are other types of skin cancer that are much more infrequent, such as lymphomas or skin sarcomas.

Skin protection from sun exposure, as well as cutaneous self-exploration and above all the dermatological visits of early detection are essential tools for its prevention and adequate cure.

Basal cell carcinoma

The most frequent and low risk type of skin cancer, provided it is treated correctly, it has no ability to extend beyond the skin unless it is allowed to evolve for years without treatment.

It usually presents as a bright, reddish or somewhat dark pigmented area, usually presents small erosions or superficial wounds, and usually does not produce any discomfort but it does not resolve without proper treatment.

Currently the dermatologists who are experts in the field have ability to detect it when they are millimetric and in some cases can progress or invade locally very superficial, so that their treatment can be done even with minimally invasive techniques and leaving minimal scar.

Squamous carcinoma

One of the types of skin cancer highly related to sun damage accumulated in the skin In cases of highly evolved tumors and / or treated incorrectly can be aggressive, although usually today can be prevented and efficiently treat when detected in early stages.

They tend to present as red areas that are scaly, raised, scabby, often painful, in areas with marked chronic sun damage and photo-aging.

In some patients can invade locally or even the ganglia.


Mode of treatment applying low temperature (cryo = cold) on the surface of the skin or mucous membranes in a way that will cause a superficial and controlled burn for the destruction of a tissue that your specialist needs to destroy.

It is for example commonly used in viral warts.


Condition of the skin, usually facial center (cheeks and nasal dorsum) in which the superficial blood capillaries of the skin dilate and become more visible, so that the skin takes a more pink or red tone, and it becomes very sensitive to stimuli that cause vasodilation (those blood capillaries become more prominent, dilated, visible).

It usually produces a variable discomfort and burning in the affected areas, and may be accentuated according to the stimuli that cause it.

Couperose may be associated with rosacea or not, and certain hormonal conditions such as those surrounding the female menopause.A proper assessment and treatment may improve or even eliminate it completely, and certain preventive measures may be essential.

The modalities of vascular laser therapy can in some cases provide a solution to some cases.

Atopic dermatitis

It is a type of skin inflammation (dermatitis) characteristically localized in certain areas of the head and body associated with itching, which usually occurs as early as childhood or youth, in people who already have a more sensitive skin type or of "atopic condition" characteristically dry.

It usually occurs in outbreaks with improvement and possible worsening, depending on some aggravating factors such as skin dryness, cold, stress, the use of chemicals or tissues irritants, scratching and superinfection of the skin.

It is not contagious although often the treatment includes some antibiotic for intercurrent infections, it is not hereditary either, but in certain occasions the families can inherit the "atopic" condition or dry skin and more sensitive, as well as the tendency to asthma or allergic rhinitis.

It requires an adequate individualized assessment to each case, to be able to treat both the outbreaks and the to prevention of them.

Pediatric dermatology

It is the area of dermatology that studies skin diseases in this age group.

The peculiarities of the child's skin will mean that there are more prevalent diseases in this group of age, such as atopic dermatitis, common warts, contagious molluscs and vascular lesions, among others.


It is the medical specialty that is dedicated to the study and treatment of diseases of the skin and of the cutaneous annexes (nails, hair).

Seborrheic dermatitis

Seborrheic dermatitis is a type of endogenous eczema, that is, not triggered by external agents.

It is characterized by the recurrent appearance (often triggered by episodes of stress) of erythema (red color). ) and desquamation in the so-called seborrheic areas (eyebrows and eyebrows, scalp, nasolabial grooves and thorax).

It is usually asymptomatic although it may produce itching in some people.


It means inflammation of the skin, usually accompanied by a "surname" which can specify the type of inflammation: atopic dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, etc. It is synonymous with eczema.

Clinically Different types of dermatitis can present erythema, desquamation and even exudation and vesicles.They can be pruritic.


It means inflammation of the skin, usually accompanied by a "surname" that can specify the type of inflammation: atopic dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, etc. It is synonymous with dermatitis.


A procedure that uses the heat of electric current to destroy abnormal tissue, such as a tumor or other injury. It can also be used to control bleeding during a surgical operation or after an injury.

The electrical current passes through an electrode that is placed on or around the tissue.The tip of the electrode is heated by electric current to burn or destroy the tissue. The electrocoagulation is a type of electrosurgery. It is also called electrocautery, electrofulguración, and fulguration.


Endermology is a technique recognized worldwide for the treatment of cellulite and the contour of the body.

It is the only French technique patented worldwide to fight cellulite and improve the condition of the skin It is a deep massage technique that is performed with a machine equipped with two adjustable rollers that suck the skin.

Its application aims to roll and unroll the affected skin in order to mobilize adipose tissue (with fat), decrease the volume of lipid deposits and eliminate toxins to give more tonicity to the skin.

Skin type studies

Each person's skin type is determined genetically, and knowing the skin type of each individual is necessary to choose the appropriate treatment for each type of skin, and thus improve its appearance and delay the aging process.

From the clinical study of each patient, information is obtained on the level of hydration, elasticity, thickness and sebum of your skin.

The classification of the skins contemplates four basic types: dry skin, which presents a greater water loss and is more unprotected against possible risks, oily skin, in which sebum is very high, sensitive skin, which reacts to many stimuli that do not cause reaction in the normal skin, and normal skin, characterized by an ideal balance between water levels and sebum.

Systemic photoprotection

The systemic or oral photoprotectors are immunopotoprotective substances administered orally (capsules, tablets, solution), mostly antioxidants, which are responsible for eliminating the free radicals that are generated in our skin due to many factors, among them, solar radiation.

One of the fundamental aspects that must be highlighted is that, since they are systemic, their protection is global, that is, they act on all of our skin, including:
Beta-carotene: are usually administered for solar intolerance or as a preventive in people with white skin.

Commercially, they can lead to confusion as many people think that they are used to brown or go acquiring color before solar exposure.

Actually, they prepare the organism for a solar exposure and there will be an increase of pigments to reduce the rapid onset of erythema, although it must be taken into account that these are not preventive of skin cancer.

- Vitamins C and E
- Green tea polyphenols.
- Polypodium leucotomos

The most commonly used is ascorbic acid or vitamin C, which also stimulates the synthesis of collagen, so that the repair of damaged tissue is even faster.

Also vitamin E or alpha-tocopherol protects against UVB and is usually combined with vitamin C for greater effectiveness. Like other substances, we have carotenoids (lutein is an example), flavonoids (used in silymarin and red clover), Omega-3 (fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic provide anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects as well as photoprotectant) and Green tea polyphenols (reduce erythema and inflammation when there is sunburn).

Infantile hemangioma

It is a cellular proliferation, generally benign, of the blood vessels characterized by the appearance of a large number of normal and abnormal vessels on the skin or other internal organs.

It is the benign tumor more frequent in childhood and clinically the most frequent presentation is in the form of a solitary nodular lesion (although they can be multiple) red.

Their evolution is benign and disappear without any treatment, although they usually take years In its evolution they go through 3 phases: proliferation, stabilization and involution.

Injuries that, due to their location or size, compromise vital functions of the child, such as those located near the eye, mouth or nose, require treatment. treatment the lesions that due to their rapid growth ulcerate.


The herpes simplex virus is responsible for cold sores (most frequent location), although it can be located in other parts of the tegument.The first time you come into contact with the virus, the primary infection can go unnoticed, as a mild cold or a course of painful gingivostomatitis (involvement of the buccal mucosa and gums).

Once this infection has been overcome, the virus is not eliminated, but remains dormant in the nerve ganglia and in When the defenses are lowered, the virus can be reactivated in the skin. The area where it is most frequently reactivated is in the lip, in the form of small grouped vesicles that erode and form a scab.It can be painful since before the appearance of vesicles.

The episode of herpes simplex heals itself, although it can accelerate the healing and reduce the symptoms with antivirals administered orally.

Herpes Zoster

There are several types of herpes virus, one of them is the varicella zoster virus (type 3). In primoinfection (first contact with the virus) produces the disease called varicella (vesicles spread throughout the body).

As it is a virus of the herpes family, it remains latent in our organism (at the level of the nervous ganglia) and in situations that favor its reactivation they do it in the form of Zoster "shingles".

Cutaneous Zoster is manifested in the form of a skin rash with very painful vesicles (in most cases) which affect specific, more limited skin areas.

It heals only but in certain In cases where antiviral treatment is indicated by postherpetic neuralgia (persistent pain).


It is excessive sweating of one or more parts of the body.

Most cases start without obvious cause at any time of life, but there are cases associated with diseases or drugs.

There are several types of treatments and depending on the case you decide which one to start with.

Cutaneous infections

It is the process in which a microorganism produces the infection of the skin, can be caused by various types of germs such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, etc.

Depending on the origin of the infection the treatment is focused to eradicate it.


LASER (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) In dermatology it is a tool for the treatment of certain diseases.

It is a light source in which the radiant energy are photons and waves with the ability to produce certain biological effects. There are several types of laser applied in dermatology and each with a specific indication.

It can be used to treat pigmented lesions (spots), vascular lesions, dermatological surgery, hair removal, photo-aging.


Also called nevus, are benign skin tumors that originate from the melanocytes (cells responsible for giving the pigment to the skin and adjoining, as well as protecting us from UV radiation.) Several types of moles-nevus exist.

Their biological behavior is dynamic, which means that they can be modified or changed over time, hence the need to perform routine controls since they can be the origin of a malignant tumor called melanoma.


Lupus is an autoimmune disease (the body itself reacts against oneself). This disease can affect the skin as well as other organs of the body.The skin involvement can be of various forms and thus help the diagnosis of the disease.

In the vast majority of cases, cutaneous lupus occurs in isolation but there are cases in which it is associated with systemic disease.

Vascular malformations

They are vascular anomalies present always from birth that never disappear and can grow during life.

The clinic is very variable since they can have their origin in veins, capillaries, lymphatics or combination of those previously mentioned.

Depending on the characteristics of the lesions, it must be ruled out that there is no involvement of another internal organ.


It is a bluish or brownish pigmentation of the skin and predominates on the face although we can find it on other areas of the face and even on the forearms.

It is also known as chloasma or blemish, in its appearance is hormonal factors (pregnancy, hormonal alterations, hormonal contraceptives), genetic, pharmacological and environmental (especially sun exposure).

Depending on the amount of pigment, the melasma will be more or less intense, and depending on the level of depth where the pigment accumulates, the color will be more brown (epidermal or superficial melasma), or bluish-gray ( dermal or deep melasma).

Molluscum contagiosum

It is a cutaneous infection caused by a virus, manifested in the form of small skin-colored, waxy lesions (verrucuites) that increase in number over time.

In children it is a disease Very common, it is spread especially in swimming pools.In adults it is considered a sexually transmitted disease.

There are several therapeutic options but it is NOT an option to leave it to its free evolution since depending on the immunity of each person it can be generalized to the entire body skin extension.


They are benign skin tumors that originate from the melanocytes (cells responsible for giving the pigment to the skin and adnexa, as well as protecting us from UV radiation).

There are several types of moles-nevus Its biological behavior is dynamic, which means that they can be modified or changed over time, hence the need to perform routine controls since they can be the origin of a malignant tumor called melanoma.


Disease of the skin in which blisters or erosions appear (loss of skin). It is produced by an erroneous inflammatory reaction of the organism against the skin itself, producing wounds in the form of sores or abrasions.

That is why it is classified as a bullous autoimmune disease.

It is a very rare disorder and in the presence of lesions of this nature it is recommended to consult the dermatologist.


A disease characterized by the appearance of scales and red skin located mainly on the elbows, knees and head. It can appear at any age, there are cases of families with several affected members. There are several treatments for this disease, although it is still a condition chronic of the skin.

Patients are evaluated and classified according to their severity (localized versus extensive lesions) and can receive treatments only with creams (topical), oral treatments (systemic), treatments with phototherapy and / or immunosuppressive treatments.

It is important to always adapt what treatment we are going to perform depending on the characteristics of each patient.


Hypertrophic scar (of large size) that extends beyond the original scar.

It is considered a scarring form of scarring, in which the skin, when cured of any wound, produces an excess of scarring. collagen (supporting fibers of the skin) exceeding the scar itself.

Exactly what is causing the formation of hypertrophic and keloid scars is unknown.

There is no beneficial treatment but you can use several options such as patches, corticosteroids, infiltrations or cryotherapy.


A burn is a loss of skin substance, can be due to several causes: usually by heat, but also exist by cold (such as that appears after a cryotherapy treatment), by assaults on the skin : chemical products (for example by bleach or other abrasives), by ultraviolet radiation (sunburn) or by very strong scratches (friction burns).

Depending on the depth of the destruction, they can be classified as burns of grade 1.2, or 3, with the treatment being different in each of them.

Actinic keratosis

They are injuries produced by chronic sun exposure (actinic = sun). As solar damage accumulates, a short period of solar exposure is added to the total amount of sun facial received. Arms and scalp are considered the most incipient form of skin cancer, they are called precancer because they can be the first step of a squamous cell carcinoma, for that reason it is important to treat them and eliminate them.

As areas of rough touch, they are so small at the beginning that they are usually recognized more by touch than by sight.The sensation is similar to passing the finger through sandpaper, which can subsequently grow and be seen as red lesions with scales.

They usually appear in people of middle age or older people depending on the amount of sun that has been received and the type of skin. There are many treatments and patients are followed up for control the response to treatments.

Seborrheic keratosis

Benign lesion in the form of a well-defined wart, waxy-looking and rough to the touch, may be skin-colored (pale yellow) or contain pigment (brown, even black) and may be flat or raised.

The cause of its appearance is not known, there is a genetic predisposition in certain people, they are benign and not contagious but it is important to go to the dermatologist to diagnose them since they may have pigment and be confused with other skin lesions.

They can be eliminated if they cause discomfort because they become irritated, if they bleed due to clothing being rubbed against them or simply for aesthetic reasons.The elimination is usually simple and there are several methods: freezing with liquid nitrogen (cryotherapy), Curettage or curettage (with a special instrument), burn with electric current (electrocautery) or vaporizing the lesion with a laser (ablation).


Describes an extensive and red rash, usually associated with allergic reactions to medications, viruses (especially in children), but there are many other causes.

It is recommended, if a rash appears, to go to the dermatologist to study its origin and its specific treatment.

Skin rose

Skin disease in which patients who suffer from it experience facial flushing at small stimuli (such as temperature changes) and progressively this redness becomes visible blood vessels (couperose) especially in cheeks, forehead or nose.

In more evolved forms, small pimples (inflammatory papules) can be seen in the red areas.

Rosacea usually appears at middle age and it develops with outbreaks (self-limiting but recurrent lesions). It is considered a chronic facial dermatosis, it is usually diagnosed clinically and there are several topical treatments to slow down its progression, improve outbreaks of redness and treat inflammation if it appears.

Photodynamic therapy

It is a treatment modality used in dermatology in which, by means of a light, it is possible to eliminate certain cells with dysplasia (cells with a certain degree of atypia or malignancy) that manifest themselves in the form of solar keratoses or areas damaged by the sun.

The patient is usually placed before a cream in the area to be treated (for example: face or head) and after a few minutes is exposed to the light of the treatment lamp.

It is a very useful technique to treat large areas and eliminate sun damage and other forms of cutaneous malignancy.


Skin disease in which reddish, edematous raised hives appear: characteristically called wheals.

These hives bite and usually disappear in a few hours, others appear in other locations.

The causes of urticaria are varied: allergic reactions to medications, food and in many other cases it is not possible to determine which is the causative agent.

They are usually treated with antihistamines.


They are benign epithelial proliferations (growths) that can appear on the skin and mucous membranes.

There are many types of warts, all skin lesions that are raised and that are not malignant are susceptible to being called As an example we have seborrheic warts (see definition of seborrheic keratosis), acrochordons or soft fibroids, etc.

Viral warts is a subgroup of warts, contagious, produced by the human papillomavirus.

These can be seen more frequently in the hands and feet or in the genitals (in these cases they can be considered sexual transmission).

Treatment is usually a combination of specific products and local cryotherapy (destruction of the warts through cold).


It is characterized by a loss of skin melanin manifesting with the appearance of white spots (without pigment).

The cause is unknown but it is known that white spots originate because they are destroyed the cells that give color to the skin (the melanocytes).

It is an inadequate inflammatory reaction of the body itself against its own cells: for this reason it is considered an autoimmune disease.

It can appear at any age and once it is diagnosed, associations with other autoimmune disorders should be ruled out (for example: hypo / hyper thyroidism).

There are different treatment options that must be assessed individually for each patient.

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